Comparing 2-Phase and 5-Phase Stepper Motors

9 min read

You’ve limited your study for a motion or movement control solution down to a stepper motor. Presently it’s an ideal opportunity to choose between a 2-phase stepper motor and 5-phase stepper motor. OMC-Stepper Online markets both 2-phase (bipolar) stepper motor and 5-phase stepper motor and stepper motor drivers. Our involvement in delivering of the two advanced stepper engines have given us an extraordinary view that we would like to share with you all.

We bring you a step-by-step comparison between the two kinds of stepper motors and stepper motor drivers to put an end and explain the disarray and myths of the debate that is held on the working and usage of the two different kinds. We present you a guide that covers the fundamental contrasts between the two technical components in the critical areas of vibration, resolution, torque, synchronism, and accuracy.

Differences between 2-Phase Stepper Motor and 5-Phase Stepper Motor

2 Phase Stepper Motor

5 Phase Stepper Motor

Mechanical Difference: A usual stepper motor is made up of two major components- stator and rotor. (1) Rotor cup 1, (2) rotor cup 2 and (3) a permanent magnet- these three elements make a rotor. The stator has eight magnetic poles with smaller teeth in 2-phase stepper motor whereas there are ten magnetic poles in the 5-phase stepper motor.

Number of Phases Difference: Number of phases in a stepper motor denotes to the various combinations of poles, energized sequentially to attract the rotor. As the names suggest, 2 phase stepper motor has 2 phases, A and B as compared to a 5-phase stepper motor which has five steps.

Differences in Performance

How do these differences influence the execution and performance of stepper motor? Various elements are engaged with the execution of a stepper motor and stepper motor driver. There are various approaches to drive a stepper motor, and the stepper motor drive enormously influences the motor’s execution and performance. Microstep, Half Step, Full Step, and Wave Drive are the most widely recognized stepper motor drive techniques, and every technique offers altogether different demonstrations. Without representing the different drive techniques here are the key performance areas for 2 phase and 5 phase stepper motor and drives.


Vibration in 5 phase stepper motor is less than 2 phase stepper motor because of smaller step angles in the 5 phase one. 5 phase stepper motor has step angles of 0.72 as compared to 1.8 step angles in a 2 phase stepper motor.


Structurally, both the kinds of stepper motors are made similarly. Both the stepper motors have 50 teeth in their rotors.

The distinction is that because the 5-stage stepper motor has ten shafts, 2 for every phase, the rotor just needs to move 1/10 of a tooth pitch to agree with the following phase. In the 2-stage engine, the rotor needs to move 1/4 of a tooth pitch to schedule with the following phase (8 posts, 4 for every phase).

This results in the 2-phase stepper motor having 200 phases for each pivot, 1.8 for every progression, while the 5- phase has 500 phases for each turn, 0.72 for every progression. The expanded resolution of the 5- phase is inalienable to its outline. At the point when combined with a micro-stepping stepper motor driver, the 5- phase stepper motor can make steps as trivial as 0.00288, nonetheless, position precision and repeatability are still dependent on the stepper motor’s mechanical accuracy. The mechanical exactness of both the 2-phase and 5-phase stepper motor is three arc minutes (0.05).


Since the 5-phase stepper motor just moves 0.72 /step, it is almost unimaginable for the 5-phase engine to miss a step because of undershooting or overshooting. However, this is not the case with a 2-phase stepper motor. Hence it is less synchronized that its 5 phase counterpart.


While there is little contrast between the yield torque of a 2-phase stepper motor and a 5-phase stepper motor, the 5-phase engine has more “operational” torque. This is because of the measure of torque ripple the two kinds of stepper motors deliver.

Microstepping or half-stepping a 5-phase stepper motor builds torque by up to 10% because of more phases being invigorated. The 2-phase stepper motor will lose torque by up to 40% when micro-stepping and half-venturing, in any case, numerous 2-phase stepper motor drivers recompense by overdriving the inverse torque vector.


Utilizing a Full-Step stepper motor drive, a 2-phase stepper motor repeats states at every fourth step, while in a 5-phase stepper motor the states repeat at every tenth level. Any electrical blunder caused by disproportionate characteristics in the phases is nullified at every fourth step in a 2-phase motor and every tenth step in a 5-phase one, leaving only the mechanical errors.

Once the stepper motor completes an entire 360 axis, the same tooth is presently arranged at the beginning point, disposing of mechanical error. Since a 2-phase stepper motor makes 200 steps/revolution, it is practically flawless every 200 steps, while the 5-phase stepper motor makes 500 steps/revolution, it becomes almost perfect at every 500 steps.


5-phase stepper motors offer better resolution, minor vibrations, higher deceleration, and acceleration rates due to smaller step angles as compared to 2-phase stepper motors. 5-phase engines have lesser chances to lose synchronization due to undershooting overshooting than its 2-phase counterpart.

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